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南京翻译公司谈科技英语长句

科技英语不同于一般的非科技英语文体,其中长句的大量使用是科技英语中一个常见的特点。由于长句中修饰语多,句子成分复杂,语言结构层次多,这就给语义理解和翻译带来困难。故本文拟就科技英语中出现的长句的句法特征做粗略的分析,试从以下两个方面来探讨。
(一)非谓语动词的广泛应用
非谓语动词不受时态、人称和单复数的限制,可分为动名词、不定式和分词﹙包括现在分词和过去分词﹚三种形式。由于科技英语要求表达简洁明了,句子结构严密,所以在科技英语中常常用非谓语动词形式来代替定语从句和状语从句,用独立结构来代替并列句,用不定式短语来代替一些冗长句,以此来达到句子短小精悍的需求。
例1.Hill’s idea of stating a perturbation theory with a better intermediate orbit than a Keplerian ellipse was quickly applied to artificial satellite theories with some success, depending on the possibility of obtaining higher order theories.
例2.To picture the stress state, select the origin of a reference system at the center of the contact area with x parallel to the cylindrical axes, y perpendicular to the plane formed by the two cylinder axes, and z in the plane of the contact force.
(二)被动语态的普遍使用
英语中被动语态的使用范围极为广泛,凡是在不必、不愿说出或不知道主动者的情况下均可使用被动语态。科技英语旨在阐述客观事物的本质特征,描述其发生、发展以及变化过程,表述客观事物之间的联系,所以它的主体通常是客观事物或自然现象。而使用被动语态的句子比主动语态的句子更能说明需要论证的对象,即把所要论证、说明的科技问题放在句子的主语位置上,使其位置鲜明、突出,从而更能引起人们的注意。这样一来,被动语态也就得以大量使用。
因此,科技英语这一文体的本身特点决定了被动语态在科技英语文章中的大量使用。
例3.As oil is found deep in the ground its presence cannot be determined by a study of the surface.Consequently, a geological survey of the underground rock structure must be carried out. If it is through that the rocks in a certain area contain oil, a “drilling rig”is assembled. The most obvious part of a drilling rig is called “a derrick”. It is used to lifting section of pipe, which are lowered into the hole made by the drill. As the hole is being drilled, a steel pipe is pushed down to
prevent the sides from falling in. If oil is truck a cover is firmly fixed to the top of the pipe and the oil is allowedto escape through a serious of valves.
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